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John Hart, DC, MHSc

Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research ~ July 30, 2018 ~ Pages 130-134




As concentration (dose) of health care providers increases, health outcomes (responses) are expected to be favorable (e.g., decrease in mortality rates). Accordingly, this data-driven, ecological study compares hypertension mortality rates in the U.S. by state to concentrations of doctors of chiropractic (DC) and medical doctors (MD). DC and MD concentrations (per 10,000 population) were separately compared to 2008 hypertension death rates using Spearman correlation analysis and linear regression (where appropriate). DC concentrations revealed a stronger beneficial association with hypertension death rates (r = −0.430, p = 0.0020) compared to MD concentrations (r = −0.029 with an observed outlier, and r = −0.085 without the outlier; both coefficients not statistically significant). Linear regression revealed that an average national decrease of approximately one hypertension death per 100,000 population (95% CI = −1.4 to −0.4) would be expected with an increase of one DC per 10,000 population within the range in this study (1.0 to 5.2 DCs per 10,000 population). Since this is an observational study, causal inference is not claimed. The study is intended as a first step to research having other designs such as case-control.

Key Words: Physician, chiropractic, hypertension, mortality

Original Publication

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License: ( No changes to the original were made. Article first published online: May 23, 2013; Issue published: October 1, 2013

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